Terapia anticancerígena y repolarización ventricular

Marleny Cruz Cardentey, Alain Gutierrez Lopez, Ana Mengana Betancourt

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Resumen

Varios fármacos anticancerígenos tienen efectos proarrítmicos al inducir prolongación del intervalo QT (IQT), con riesgo potencial de generar torsión de puntas (TP). Los trastornos de la repolarización ventricular se producen, generalmente, por la interacción de la droga con los canales iónicos de la membrana celular. La marcada prolongación del IQT (> 500 milisegundos) es más frecuente en la terapia molecular dirigida y los reportes de TP y/o muerte súbita arrítmica por prolongación del IQT son escasos. Las alteraciones genéticas, el desbalance hidroelectrolítico, la presencia de cardiopatía estructural y el uso concomitante de otras drogas, tienen efecto coadyuvante en la génesis de la TP. Este artículo revisa, en la terapia anticancerígena, las bases electrofisiológicas de los trastornos de la repolarización ventricular y de la TP, las consideraciones para medir y corregir el IQT, el valor de otras variables electrocardiográficas para evaluar la repolarización ventricular, así como, los fármacos anticancerígenos que con mayor frecuencia prologan el IQT y el seguimiento de los pacientes con estas terapias.    

Palabras clave

repolarización ventricular, terapia anticancerígena, cardiotoxicidad, prolongación del intervalo QT, torsión de puntas.

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